{ "objects" : [ { "embark_ID" : 2544, "URL" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Objects-1/info/2544", "Disp_Access_No" : "2002.1410", "_AccNumSort1" : "", "Disp_Create_DT" : "1624", "_Disp_Start_Dat" : "1624", "_Disp_End_Date" : "1624", "Disp_Title" : "Martyrdom of Saint Bartholomew", "Alt_Title" : "", "Obj_Title" : "Martyrdom of Saint Bartholomew", "Series_Title" : "", "Disp_Maker_1" : "Jusepe de Ribera", "Sort_Artist" : "Ribera, Jusepe de", "Disp_Dimen" : "31.7 cm x 23.4 cm (12 1/2 in. x 9 3/16 in.)", "Disp_Height" : "31.7 cm", "Disp_Width" : "23.4 cm", "Dimen_Extent" : "sheet", "Medium" : "Etching", "Support" : "", "Disp_Medium" : "Etching", "Info_Page_Comm" : "", "Dedication" : "Blanton Museum of Art, The University of Texas at Austin, The Leo Steinberg Collection, 2002", "Copyright_Type" : "public domain", "Disp_Obj_Type" : "print", "Creation_Place2" : "Spanish", "Department" : "Prints and Drawings", "Obj_Name" : "", "Period" : "", "Style" : "", "Edition" : "", "Curator" : "", "Images": [ { "ImagePath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/images/2002.1410.tif", "ThumbnailPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Thumbnails/2002.1410.tif", "PreviewPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Previews/2002.1410.tif", "IIIF_URL": "http://iiif.gallerysystems.com/2002.1410.tif", "IsPrimary" : "1", "_SurrogateID" : "3742", "Image_Type" : "", "Photo_Credit" : "", "Remarks" : "", "View" : "" } , ] },{ "embark_ID" : 3731, "URL" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Objects-1/info/3731", "Disp_Access_No" : "G1966.2.210", "_AccNumSort1" : "", "Disp_Create_DT" : "1797-1799 (p. 1890-1900)", "_Disp_Start_Dat" : "1797", "_Disp_End_Date" : "1799", "Disp_Title" : "Devota profesion [Devout Profession], plate 70 from Los Caprichos", "Alt_Title" : "", "Obj_Title" : "Devota profesion [Devout Profession], plate 70 from Los Caprichos", "Series_Title" : "", "Disp_Maker_1" : "Francisco de Goya y Lucientes", "Sort_Artist" : "Goya y Lucientes, Francisco de", "Disp_Dimen" : "34.3 cm x 24.3 cm (13 1/2 in. x 9 9/16 in.)", "Disp_Height" : "34.3 cm", "Disp_Width" : "24.3 cm", "Dimen_Extent" : "Sheet", "Medium" : "Etching, aquatint and drypoint", "Support" : "", "Disp_Medium" : "Etching, aquatint and drypoint", "Info_Page_Comm" : "The earliest of Goya’s four major print series by more than decade, the Caprichos were created in 1797-98. Free inventions, thus “caprices,” their eighty plates comment upon the tension between society and the individual, between ideals and realities, between belief and reason. Injustice, hypocrisy, and superstition are Goya’s principal targets; caricature, satire, and sarcasm his favorite weapons. In addition to the printed titles, a manuscript in the Prado Museum purportedly written by Goya elucidates the meaning of individual prints. The imagery of the Caprichos is rich with references, from established iconography to folk literature, songs, and sayings. But the series is above all original in the modern sense: the product of an individual and unfettered imagination. The Caprichos are also the first great demonstration of the expressive possibilities of aquatint, which had previously been used for reproducing the appearance of drawings. First published in 1799 they along with the Tauromaquia were the only series released during the artist’s lifetime. Retaining the plates, the Royal Academy in Madrid issued eleven more editions between 1855 and 1937, making the Caprichos the most widely circulated and best known of Goya’s prints. The Prado manuscript gives a detailed script of this scene of witchcraft: “Will you swear to obey and respect your masters and superiors, to sweep the garrets, to spin, to ring bells, to howl, to yell, to fly, to cook, to grease, to suck, to bake, to blow, to fry, everything and whatever time you are ordered to?” “I swear.” “Well then, my girl, you are now a witch. Congratulations.” ", "Dedication" : "Blanton Museum of Art, The University of Texas at Austin, Gift of the children of L.M. Tonkin, 1966", "Copyright_Type" : "public domain", "Disp_Obj_Type" : "print", "Creation_Place2" : "Spanish", "Department" : "Prints and Drawings", "Obj_Name" : "", "Period" : "", "Style" : "", "Edition" : "", "Curator" : "", "Images": [ { "ImagePath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/images/G1966.2.210.tif", "ThumbnailPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Thumbnails/G1966.2.210.tif", "PreviewPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Previews/G1966.2.210.tif", "IIIF_URL": "http://iiif.gallerysystems.com/G1966.2.210.tif", "IsPrimary" : "1", "_SurrogateID" : "4922", "Image_Type" : "", "Photo_Credit" : "", "Remarks" : "", "View" : "" } , ] },{ "embark_ID" : 11268, "URL" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Objects-1/info/11268", "Disp_Access_No" : "2002.1415", "_AccNumSort1" : "", "Disp_Create_DT" : "circa 1680-1691", "_Disp_Start_Dat" : "1680", "_Disp_End_Date" : "1691", "Disp_Title" : "Flying Cherubim, plate 28 from Principios para estudiar el nobilísimo y real arte de la pintura [Principles for Studying the Most Noble and High Art of Painting]", "Alt_Title" : "", "Obj_Title" : "Flying Cherubim", "Series_Title" : "", "Disp_Maker_1" : "José Garcia Hidalgo", "Sort_Artist" : "Hidalgo, José Garcia", "Disp_Dimen" : "12.9 cm x 17.6 cm (5 1/16 in. x 6 15/16 in.)", "Disp_Height" : "12.9 cm", "Disp_Width" : "17.6 cm", "Dimen_Extent" : "sheet", "Medium" : "Etching", "Support" : "", "Disp_Medium" : "Etching", "Info_Page_Comm" : "", "Dedication" : "Blanton Museum of Art, The University of Texas at Austin, The Leo Steinberg Collection, 2002", "Copyright_Type" : "public domain", "Disp_Obj_Type" : "print", "Creation_Place2" : "Spanish", "Department" : "Prints and Drawings", "Obj_Name" : "", "Period" : "", "Style" : "", "Edition" : "", "Curator" : "Principios para estudiar el nobilísimo y real arte de la pintura facsimile edition published in 1965. [HB]", "Images": [ { "ImagePath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/images/2002.1415.tif", "ThumbnailPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Thumbnails/2002.1415.tif", "PreviewPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Previews/2002.1415.tif", "IIIF_URL": "http://iiif.gallerysystems.com/2002.1415.tif", "IsPrimary" : "1", "_SurrogateID" : "3704", "Image_Type" : "", "Photo_Credit" : "", "Remarks" : "", "View" : "" } , { "ImagePath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/images/2002.1415.tif", "ThumbnailPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Thumbnails/2002.1415.tif", "PreviewPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Previews/2002.1415.tif", "IIIF_URL": "http://iiif.gallerysystems.com/2002.1415.tif", "IsPrimary" : "0", "_SurrogateID" : "3722", "Image_Type" : "", "Photo_Credit" : "", "Remarks" : "", "View" : "" } , ] },{ "embark_ID" : 12893, "URL" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Objects-1/info/12893", "Disp_Access_No" : "2002.1408", "_AccNumSort1" : "", "Disp_Create_DT" : "before 1624", "_Disp_Start_Dat" : "1614", "_Disp_End_Date" : "1623", "Disp_Title" : "Lamentation of Christ", "Alt_Title" : "", "Obj_Title" : "Lamentation of Christ", "Series_Title" : "", "Disp_Maker_1" : "Jusepe de Ribera", "Sort_Artist" : "Ribera, Jusepe de", "Disp_Dimen" : "19.3 cm x 25.7 cm (7 5/8 in. x 10 1/8 in.)", "Disp_Height" : "19.3 cm", "Disp_Width" : "25.7 cm", "Dimen_Extent" : "sheet", "Medium" : "Etching with drypoint", "Support" : "", "Disp_Medium" : "Etching with drypoint", "Info_Page_Comm" : "", "Dedication" : "Blanton Museum of Art, The University of Texas at Austin, The Leo Steinberg Collection, 2002", "Copyright_Type" : "public domain", "Disp_Obj_Type" : "print", "Creation_Place2" : "Spanish", "Department" : "Prints and Drawings", "Obj_Name" : "", "Period" : "", "Style" : "", "Edition" : "", "Curator" : "", "Images": [ { "ImagePath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/images/2002.1408.tif", "ThumbnailPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Thumbnails/2002.1408.tif", "PreviewPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Previews/2002.1408.tif", "IIIF_URL": "http://iiif.gallerysystems.com/2002.1408.tif", "IsPrimary" : "1", "_SurrogateID" : "3684", "Image_Type" : "", "Photo_Credit" : "", "Remarks" : "", "View" : "" } , { "ImagePath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/images/2002.1408.tif", "ThumbnailPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Thumbnails/2002.1408.tif", "PreviewPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Previews/2002.1408.tif", "IIIF_URL": "http://iiif.gallerysystems.com/2002.1408.tif", "IsPrimary" : "0", "_SurrogateID" : "3687", "Image_Type" : "", "Photo_Credit" : "", "Remarks" : "", "View" : "" } , ] },{ "embark_ID" : 12896, "URL" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Objects-1/info/12896", "Disp_Access_No" : "2002.1413", "_AccNumSort1" : "", "Disp_Create_DT" : "circa 1624", "_Disp_Start_Dat" : "1619", "_Disp_End_Date" : "1629", "Disp_Title" : "Saint Jerome Reading", "Alt_Title" : "", "Obj_Title" : "Saint Jerome Reading", "Series_Title" : "", "Disp_Maker_1" : "Jusepe de Ribera", "Sort_Artist" : "Ribera, Jusepe de", "Disp_Dimen" : "18.5 cm x 25 cm (7 5/16 in. x 9 13/16 in.)", "Disp_Height" : "18.5 cm", "Disp_Width" : "25 cm", "Dimen_Extent" : "sheet", "Medium" : "Etching with engraving and drypoint", "Support" : "", "Disp_Medium" : "Etching with engraving and drypoint", "Info_Page_Comm" : "", "Dedication" : "Blanton Museum of Art, The University of Texas at Austin, The Leo Steinberg Collection, 2002", "Copyright_Type" : "public domain", "Disp_Obj_Type" : "print", "Creation_Place2" : "Spanish", "Department" : "Prints and Drawings", "Obj_Name" : "", "Period" : "", "Style" : "", "Edition" : "", "Curator" : "", "Images": [ { "ImagePath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/images/2002.1413.tif", "ThumbnailPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Thumbnails/2002.1413.tif", "PreviewPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Previews/2002.1413.tif", "IIIF_URL": "http://iiif.gallerysystems.com/2002.1413.tif", "IsPrimary" : "1", "_SurrogateID" : "3702", "Image_Type" : "", "Photo_Credit" : "", "Remarks" : "", "View" : "" } , { "ImagePath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/images/2002.1413.tif", "ThumbnailPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Thumbnails/2002.1413.tif", "PreviewPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Previews/2002.1413.tif", "IIIF_URL": "http://iiif.gallerysystems.com/2002.1413.tif", "IsPrimary" : "0", "_SurrogateID" : "3720", "Image_Type" : "", "Photo_Credit" : "", "Remarks" : "", "View" : "" } , ] },{ "embark_ID" : 13238, "URL" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Objects-1/info/13238", "Disp_Access_No" : "2002.1979", "_AccNumSort1" : "", "Disp_Create_DT" : "1621", "_Disp_Start_Dat" : "1621", "_Disp_End_Date" : "1621", "Disp_Title" : "Saint Jerome Hearing the Trumpet of the Last Judgment", "Alt_Title" : "", "Obj_Title" : "Saint Jerome Hearing the Trumpet of the Last Judgment", "Series_Title" : "", "Disp_Maker_1" : "Jusepe de Ribera", "Sort_Artist" : "Ribera, Jusepe de", "Disp_Dimen" : "33.7 cm x 25.6 cm (13 1/4 in. x 10 1/16 in.)", "Disp_Height" : "33.7 cm", "Disp_Width" : "25.6 cm", "Dimen_Extent" : "sheet", "Medium" : "Etching with drypoint and engraving", "Support" : "", "Disp_Medium" : "Etching with drypoint and engraving", "Info_Page_Comm" : "", "Dedication" : "Blanton Museum of Art, The University of Texas at Austin, The Leo Steinberg Collection, 2002", "Copyright_Type" : "public domain", "Disp_Obj_Type" : "print", "Creation_Place2" : "Spanish", "Department" : "Prints and Drawings", "Obj_Name" : "", "Period" : "", "Style" : "", "Edition" : "", "Curator" : "", "Images": [ { "ImagePath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/images/2002.1979.tif", "ThumbnailPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Thumbnails/2002.1979.tif", "PreviewPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Previews/2002.1979.tif", "IIIF_URL": "http://iiif.gallerysystems.com/2002.1979.tif", "IsPrimary" : "1", "_SurrogateID" : "3706", "Image_Type" : "", "Photo_Credit" : "", "Remarks" : "", "View" : "" } , { "ImagePath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/images/2002.1979.tif", "ThumbnailPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Thumbnails/2002.1979.tif", "PreviewPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Previews/2002.1979.tif", "IIIF_URL": "http://iiif.gallerysystems.com/2002.1979.tif", "IsPrimary" : "0", "_SurrogateID" : "3724", "Image_Type" : "", "Photo_Credit" : "", "Remarks" : "", "View" : "" } , { "ImagePath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/images/2002.1979.tif", "ThumbnailPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Thumbnails/2002.1979.tif", "PreviewPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Previews/2002.1979.tif", "IIIF_URL": "http://iiif.gallerysystems.com/2002.1979.tif", "IsPrimary" : "0", "_SurrogateID" : "3746", "Image_Type" : "", "Photo_Credit" : "", "Remarks" : "", "View" : "" } , ] },{ "embark_ID" : 15025, "URL" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Objects-1/info/15025", "Disp_Access_No" : "1982.1300", "_AccNumSort1" : "", "Disp_Create_DT" : "late 15th century - 1530s", "_Disp_Start_Dat" : "1467", "_Disp_End_Date" : "1530", "Disp_Title" : "Cope (Ecclesiastical Cape)", "Alt_Title" : "", "Obj_Title" : "Cope (Ecclesiastical Cape)", "Series_Title" : "", "Disp_Maker_1" : "Anonymous", "Sort_Artist" : "Anonymous", "Disp_Dimen" : "135.9 cm x 278.8 cm (53 1/2 in. x 109 3/4 in.)", "Disp_Height" : "135.9 cm", "Disp_Width" : "278.8 cm", "Dimen_Extent" : "Sight", "Medium" : "Velvet and silk embroidery", "Support" : "", "Disp_Medium" : "Velvet and silk embroidery", "Info_Page_Comm" : "Copes were worn by Catholic bishops and priests during religious processions. Decorated with embroidery, copes often had orphreys, or ornamental borders, that depicted scenes from the lives of holy figures. This work features an orphrey that represents seven popular episodes from Christ’s Passion, such as the Agony in the Garden, Kiss of Judas, Flagellation, Crowning of Thorns, Mocking, Road to Calvary, and finally the Crucifixion. In the lower part of the Crucifixion panel is a coat of arms that suggests this ecclesiastical garment probably belonged to a member of a Flemish family. The pattern and quality of the velvet, on the other hand, points to an Italian origin. It is likely that the orphrey and the velvet were sewn together in the twentieth century. ", "Dedication" : "Blanton Museum of Art, The University of Texas at Austin, Gift of Vivian Merrin, 1982", "Copyright_Type" : "public domain", "Disp_Obj_Type" : "textile", "Creation_Place2" : "Spanish", "Department" : "", "Obj_Name" : "", "Period" : "", "Style" : "", "Edition" : "", "Curator" : "Would need very low light levels. In good condition. (FC:jb 5/8/15)", "Images": [ { "ImagePath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/images/1982.1300.tif", "ThumbnailPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Thumbnails/1982.1300.tif", "PreviewPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Previews/1982.1300.tif", "IIIF_URL": "http://iiif.gallerysystems.com/1982.1300.tif", "IsPrimary" : "1", "_SurrogateID" : "3228", "Image_Type" : "", "Photo_Credit" : "", "Remarks" : "", "View" : "" } , ] },{ "embark_ID" : 16228, "URL" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Objects-1/info/16228", "Disp_Access_No" : "2017.1439", "_AccNumSort1" : "", "Disp_Create_DT" : "circa 1780s-1790s", "_Disp_Start_Dat" : "1780", "_Disp_End_Date" : "1790", "Disp_Title" : "Madonna and Child in Glory above a City", "Alt_Title" : "", "Obj_Title" : "Madonna and Child in Glory above a City", "Series_Title" : "", "Disp_Maker_1" : "Rafael Ximeno y Planes", "Sort_Artist" : "Ximeno y Planes, Rafael", "Disp_Dimen" : "14.31 cm x 8.31 cm (5 5/8 in. x 3 1/4 in.)", "Disp_Height" : "14.31 cm", "Disp_Width" : "8.31 cm", "Dimen_Extent" : "Sheet", "Medium" : "Pen and brown ink with brush and brown wash and white heightening on cream antique laid paper", "Support" : "", "Disp_Medium" : "Pen and brown ink with brush and brown wash and white heightening on cream antique laid paper", "Info_Page_Comm" : "", "Dedication" : "Blanton Museum of Art, The University of Texas at Austin, The Suida-Manning Collection, 2017", "Copyright_Type" : "Public domain", "Disp_Obj_Type" : "drawing", "Creation_Place2" : "Spanish", "Department" : "Prints and Drawings", "Obj_Name" : "", "Period" : "", "Style" : "", "Edition" : "", "Curator" : "", "Images": [ { "ImagePath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/images/2017.1439.tif", "ThumbnailPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Thumbnails/2017.1439.tif", "PreviewPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Previews/2017.1439.tif", "IIIF_URL": "http://iiif.gallerysystems.com/2017.1439.tif", "IsPrimary" : "1", "_SurrogateID" : "5881", "Image_Type" : "", "Photo_Credit" : "", "Remarks" : "", "View" : "" } , ] },{ "embark_ID" : 16324, "URL" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Objects-1/info/16324", "Disp_Access_No" : "2017.838", "_AccNumSort1" : "", "Disp_Create_DT" : "18th century", "_Disp_Start_Dat" : "1700", "_Disp_End_Date" : "1799", "Disp_Title" : "The Assumption of the Virgin", "Alt_Title" : "", "Obj_Title" : "The Assumption of the Virgin", "Series_Title" : "", "Disp_Maker_1" : "Anonymous", "Sort_Artist" : "Anonymous", "Disp_Dimen" : "47.5 cm x 40.2 cm (18 11/16 in. x 15 13/16 in.)", "Disp_Height" : "47.5 cm", "Disp_Width" : "40.2 cm", "Dimen_Extent" : "canvas", "Medium" : "Oil", "Support" : "canvas", "Disp_Medium" : "Oil on canvas", "Info_Page_Comm" : "", "Dedication" : "Blanton Museum of Art, The University of Texas at Austin, The Suida-Manning Collection, 2017", "Copyright_Type" : "public domain", "Disp_Obj_Type" : "painting", "Creation_Place2" : "Spanish", "Department" : "European Paintings", "Obj_Name" : "", "Period" : "", "Style" : "", "Edition" : "", "Curator" : "Condition issues, conservation. Needs work. 2 for condition, 2+ composition. Would be nice in oil sketch room. Also requires more research. (FC:jb 4/24/15)", "Images": [ { "ImagePath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/images/2017.838.TIF", "ThumbnailPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Thumbnails/2017.838.TIF", "PreviewPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Previews/2017.838.TIF", "IIIF_URL": "http://iiif.gallerysystems.com/2017.838.TIF", "IsPrimary" : "1", "_SurrogateID" : "10638", "Image_Type" : "Digital image", "Photo_Credit" : "", "Remarks" : "", "View" : "" } , ] },{ "embark_ID" : 16525, "URL" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Objects-1/info/16525", "Disp_Access_No" : "2017.1346", "_AccNumSort1" : "", "Disp_Create_DT" : "1689-1706", "_Disp_Start_Dat" : "1689", "_Disp_End_Date" : "1706", "Disp_Title" : "Education of the Virgin", "Alt_Title" : "", "Obj_Title" : "Education of the Virgin", "Series_Title" : "", "Disp_Maker_1" : "Luisa Roldán", "Sort_Artist" : "Roldán, Luisa", "Disp_Dimen" : "43 x 45 x 36 cm (16 15/16 x 17 11/16 x 14 3/16 in.)", "Disp_Height" : "43 cm", "Disp_Width" : "45 cm", "Dimen_Extent" : "", "Medium" : "Polychrome terracotta", "Support" : "", "Disp_Medium" : "Polychrome terracotta", "Info_Page_Comm" : "The earliest documented female sculptor in Spain, Luisa Roldán (1652-1706) created sculptures for the king and queen among many other important Spanish patrons. In The Education of the Virgin, she captured a tender, everyday moment between the young Virgin Mary (future mother of Jesus Christ) and her parents, saints Anne and Joachim. Standing at Anne’s feet, Mary peers over her mother’s lap as they practice reading a religious text together. Joachim leans on the arm of Anne’s chair, observing and encouraging the lesson. By including both Mary’s mother and father in the miniature figural group, Roldán emphasized the important role that parents play in the spiritual and moral education their children. Although The Education of the Virgin serves as an earthly reminder that our parents are our first teachers, the many angels who wait on Mary and her family also confirm the religious significance of the subject and the exceptionality of the Virgin Mary within the Catholic tradition. In fact, painted on the cushion of the chair behind Anne’s back is an image of Anne and Joachim’s embrace at the Golden Gate, a moment that, according to non-Biblical Christian religious texts such as Jacopo da Voragine’s Golden Legend, occurred after the angel Gabriel announced to Joachim that Anne, his elderly wife, had immaculately conceived a child. Mary’s miraculous conception was an important Catholic theological point because, her soul having not been conceived through sexual intercourse, she was born without original sin (the innate tendency of all human beings to disobey God) and was therefore able to bear Christ, the Christian incarnation of God on earth. Roldán also referenced Mary’s birth at the bottom right corner of the sculpture, where a small, chubby angel presents a roll of fabric for swaddling Mary as a newborn, a birthing cushion for her mother Anne’s use during labor, and a woven basket filled with cloth that served as Mary’s bassinette--indeed, these elements also foreshadow Mary’s future role as mother of Christ. In this way, Roldán refers to three phases from the life of the young Virgin at once: her Immaculate conception, her angelically attended birth, and her upbringing by two devout people. The sculpture thus not only imagines a tender scene between parents and daughter but also affirms Mary’s extraordinary position within the Catholic tradition and her worthiness to become the mother of God. In the 1600s, this kind of small, painted terracotta (baked clay) sculpture would have been used in private devotion, usually placed on a table inside of the home, reminding its viewers both of the importance of obedience to one’s elders and to God as well as the need for parents to provide religious and moral education to their children, including girls. This is especially interesting given that, at this time, women were becoming increasingly literate and exercising greater (although still extremely limited) cultural and political authority than they had in earlier periods of Spain’s history. Also significant is that, until the modern era, women were not allowed access to professional artistic training and the few women who became artists almost always learned their craft from their fathers. The Education of the Virgin, which is an image of instruction between parent and child, may thus have had personal significance for Roldán, who was taught how to sculpt by her father, Pedro (1624-1699), an artist from Seville. Due to the fragile nature of terracotta, few of Roldán’s sculptures survive today. The Blanton’s example was conserved in 2019, which revealed that the top of each woman’s head has a small hole where a medal crown would have been inserted. Additionally, at Joachim’s feet are the four paws of a now-lost cat, which may have been competing with the book on Anne’s lap for Mary’s attention. Furthermore, Roldán may have roughened the patch of clay at the center-front of the composition to attach a small dog, which is included in a similar sculpture of the same subject that is now in a private collection in Spain. Even without these elements, Roldán’s Education of the Virgin is an important example of her late work, of which only about twenty examples still exist in the world. ", "Dedication" : "Blanton Museum of Art, The University of Texas at Austin, The Suida-Manning Collection, 2017", "Copyright_Type" : "public domain", "Disp_Obj_Type" : "sculpture", "Creation_Place2" : "Spanish", "Department" : "", "Obj_Name" : "", "Period" : "", "Style" : "", "Edition" : "", "Curator" : "JhP to do more research. 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